Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard ( 4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU, and the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966. He is often famed for leading the West German postwar economic reforms and economic recovery (Wirtschaftswunder, German for “economic miracle”) in his role as Minister of Economic Affairs under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer from 1949 to 1963. During that period he promoted the concept of the social market economy (soziale Marktwirtschaft), on which Germany’s economic policy in the 21st century continues to be based. In his tenure as Chancellor, however, Erhard lacked support from Adenauer, who remained chairman of the party until 1966, and failed to win the public’s confidence in his handling of a budget deficit and his direction of foreign policy. His popularity waned, and he resigned his chancellorship on 30 November 1966.